We publish in our second and fifth pages some very interesting particulars of the conduct of BONAPARTE since his surrender to Captain MAITLAND. They are characteristic of the man, and exhibit him as preserving an equanimity of mind which few could maintain under similar circumstances. The Courier says that Ministers are offended at his continued affectation of the style of a Sovereign, and that in consequence they have sent down orders to treat him simply as a General. This betrays a littleness of mind, which we are sorry to see exhibited towards a fallen foe. Of the crimes and cruelties imputed to NAPOLEON we shall never become the defenders. They were all of the same nature which have been committed by ambitious, successful men, from time immemorial. We now consider him as politically dead, and therefore are far more inclined to bring to our recollection his wonderful talents which made him what he was, than his bad deeds which have made him what he is. A generous man seeks not the destruction nor the degradation of his enemy.- he is satisfied with his submission. But it is said that BONAPARTE'S submission was not made until he was compelled to it, and therefore that he is not entitled to receive any benefit from it. Few persons yield until they perceive their further resistance is useless, but it must be admitted, there was no positive necessity of his surrendering himself to us. The Emperor of RUSSIA has always been distinguished for generosity, and, we have no doubt, he would have shewn himself worthy of that character had he given himself up to him. But, notwithstanding the peculiar provocations he has given Britain, he singles her out from all the States of Europe in whose power to place himself. There is something generous in human nature which inclines us always to consider fallen greatness with pity. When we therefore view the captive NAPOLEON walking the quarter-deck of a British man of war, anxiously waiting the determination of our Government, as to the place of his future imprisonment, we cannot help recurring to the man, who, at Vienna, imposed laws on the Emperor of AUSTRIA, who did the same to the King of PRUSSIA at Berlin, and the same to the Emperor of RUSSIA at Tilsit - to him before whom the greatest have trembled - the creator of Kings, and the dispenser of Kingdoms.
The future destination of this once great man is finally fixed, and St. Helena is authoritively said to be the place. None of his suite are to be allowed to accompany him, and it is said his money is to be taken from him.* The Council which settled his fate was held on Friday, and in the evening Mr. GREY, the Messenger, was sent to Plymouth with the result. It is said, that Sir H. LOWE is to be the Military Officer appointed to be his guard. He will succeed Mr. WILKES, who is in the Company's service as Governor of the Island. The Company's troops will be replaced by a King's regiment, and there will be an article in the new Treaty of Paris, by which the expence of this establishment will be made a constituent part of our contingent towards the force that is to be kept up for the maintenance of the peace of Europe.- Sir George COCKBURN and Sir HUDSON LOWE attended Ministers yesterday, on the subject of their appointment to this service.
The following is a literal and correct copy of the Letter which BONAPARTE sent to the PRINCE REGENT:
"En butte aux factions qui divisent mon pays et à l'inimities des plus grandes Puissances de l'Europe, j'ai terminé ma carriere politique, et je viens comme THEMISTOCLE, m'asseoir sur les foyers du peuple Britannique. Je me mets sous la protection de ses lois, que je reclame de V.A.R.comme le plus puissant, le plus constant, et le plus genereux de mes ennemis. "NAPOLEON."
"Exposed to the factions which divide my country, and to the enmity of the great powers of Europe, I have terminated my political career, and I come, like THEMISTOCLES, to throw myself upon the hospitality (m'asseoir sur les foyers) of the British Nation. I place myself under the protection of its laws, which I claim from your Royal Highness as the most powerful, the most constant, and the most generous of my enemies. "NAPOLEON."
"Rochefort, 13th July."
* We think BONAPARTE has been misled, not as to the character of the English Nation, but as to the manly, generous dispositions of the Members of the English Government. Their narrow minds make them eagerly desirous of trampling on a prostrate enemy. Had he been rightly advised, NAPOLEON would have sought the protection of the Emperor ALEXANDER. In that case, had he even been sent to Siberia, his faithful adherents would not have been separated from him, and Siberia, with the consolation attached to the company of real and tried friends, is far preferable to the fairest spot on earth, when torn from every connection which makes life valuable.
Affairs in France seem approaching towards another crisis. Urged by all his Allies, and probably encouraged by his grand opponent being in the power of one of them, LOUIS XVIII. has published two Royal Ordinances affecting some of the Chiefs of the BONAPARTEAN party. By one of these Decrees, the following persons who were raised to the Peerage by LOUIS, and afterwards sat in the Chamber of Peers nominated by BONAPARTE, are erased from the Peerage. Their names are-
Counts Clement de Ris, Colchin, Cordunet, Aboville, de Croix, Dedeley-d'Agier, Dejean, Fabre de l'Aude, Gassendi. Lacepede, Latour Maubourg, de Barral (Archbishop of Tours,) Boissy d'Anglas, Conclaux, Casabianca, Montesquiou, Ponticoulant, Rampon, Segur, Valence, and Beillard; Dukes of Dantzic, Praslin, Plaisance, Elchingen, Albufera, Cornegliano, Treviso, and Cadore.
By the 2d ordinance, the following Officers are to be brought before a Military Tribunal, and tried "for waging war against France and the Government," namely-
Ney, Labedoyere, the two brothers Lallemand, Drouet d'Erlon, Lefebvre, Desnouettes, Ameilli, Breyer, Gilly, Mouton Duvernet, Grouchy, Clausel, Laborde, Debelle, Bertrand, Drouet, Cambrone, Lavalette, and Rovigo.
By virtue of the same Decree, the individuals whose names are subjoined, are to quit Paris in three days, and to retire to such places in the interior as shall be assigned to them by the Minister of Police, where they are to remain under his surveillance, till the two Chambers decide which of them are to quit the kingdom, or to be delivered over to the Courts of Justice. Their names are-
Soult, Alix, Excelmans, Bassano, Marbot, Felix, Lepelletier, Boulay de la Meurthe, Mehee, Fressinet, Thibaudeau, Carnot, Vandamme, General Lamarque, Lobau, Harel, Pire, Barrere, Arnault, Pommereuil, Regnaud de Saint Jean d'Angely, Arrighi, Dejean, Garrau, Real, Bouvier-Dumolard, Merlin of Douay, Durbach, Dirat, Defermont, Bory-Saint-Vincent, Felix Desportes, Garnier-de-Saintes, Mellinet, Hulin, Cloys, Courtin, Forbin-Janson, and Le Lorne Dideville.
By the same Ordinance it is decreed, that no other names are ever to be added to the foregoing lists. One Ordinance is signed by Prince TALLEYRAND, and the second by FOUCHE, Duke of OTRANTO.
This looks somewhat like decision, but we fancy it will be found only its resemblance. We observe that the names of DAVOUST, RAPP, REY, BRUNE, and LECOURBE, who are now all in arms, do not appear in either of the lists, a sufficient proof of the want of will or of power in the KING to punish them. If severity is to become the order of the day in France the Allies must become the executioners; for we are persuaded none others will be found strong enough to brave those dangers which must result from the condemnation of a part, for acts in which the great majority of the nation has clearly participated.
The conduct of the aged MONARCH and the resolution of the Generals of the army on the Loire are, however, likely to be soon brought to the test. The Paris Papers mention that a Decree for disbanding that army is daily expected to be issued. If it submits, the path of the KING will for the present be smooth? if otherwise, he will be placed in a situation of peculiar danger and difficulty. If we may draw an inference from appearances as they now present themselves, much blood will be shed before the French army will be induced to disband itself, but such is the superiority of force opposed to it that we acknowledge we see little hope that resistance will better its condition. BLUCHER is at Chartres, on his road to the Loire, and it is said the Allied armies are about to surround their antagonists at all points. SUCHET, LECOURBE, and RAPP have joined forces to those of DAVOUST, who it is supposed has upwards of 150,000 men under his command.
Paris Papers, amongst which is the new Official Journal, ci-devant the Moniteur, were received in town last night. The latter contains an official note, signed METTERNIICH, CASTLEREAGH, NESSELRODE, and HARDENBERG; addressed to Messrs. TALLEYRAND, FOUCHE, & Co. or the Ministers of the French KING. It is too long for insertion, but its seeming import is the maintenance of the Allied armies, when stationed by different corps in different places. From this document it would appear that military possession is to be taken of France by the Allies, in the name, of King LOIUS. "The authorities of the KING," say the 4th and 5th articles, "shall be immediately re-established in the departments, and the Prefects and Sub-Prefects replaced in the exercise of their functions. In order to protect these authorities, Military Governors are to be appointed," &c. In the concluding paragraph pf the note, the Allied Ministers "flatter themselves that the King's Ministers will recognise in these arrangements the sincere desire which they have to contribute to the re-establishment of the Royal authority." It will be remarked that this official note was drawn up on the day on which the KING issued his ordonnances relative to those who are to be tried, banished, or removed from the Peerage.
The inference we draw from these publications is, that the poor King is a tool in the hands of the Allies, who compel him to sanction every measure they deem it necessary to adopt. They feel they are unable to establish the authority of this Monarch of their own, without a military power, which military power they must furnish. France, therefore, must have the pleasure of the company of the Prussians, &c. &c. for a much longer time than was originally expected. We have no doubt, even if the army under DAVOUST disbands itself without resistance, that France will require a foreign army to support the BOURBON civil force for years.
The French Journals now begin to speculate on the terms of peace which they are likely to obtain from the Allies. It must be allowed that the Parisians at this moment exhibit such a barefaced, contemptible prostitution of political sentiment, that were it not for public grounds we should care but little what became of them. The French character indeed at this moment appears sunk to the lowest state of degradation. So much so, that the people glory in their base versatility. The most consistent of them are marked out for punishment, whilst the most distinguished time-servers, those who, like FOUCHE and TALLEYRAND, always have been ready to bow the knee to every political BAAL, are honoured and rewarded. The following are reported to be the heads of the conditions proposed by the Allies. The first point, and without which all others would be nugatory, is, that the army of the Loire, whatever may be the terms on which the KING might be disposed to accept of its submission, shall be disbanded. If the men disband and retire to their own homes, the Chiefs alone will be singled out for punishment. If they refuse, force must be used. As some security for the future peace of Europe, the Allies next require three of the strongest fortresses to be retained by them for a given time. They lastly demand a pecuniary compensation adequate to the expences they have incurred by the renewal of the war. The amount of this sum is differently stated. Some reports mention thirty millions sterling.
It is asserted, in private letters, that Davoust has under him near 200,000 men, with which he guards the right bank of the Loire with the most jealous vigilance.
It is said that Davoust, Brune, and the other French Generals of the army on the Loire have hoisted the black flag- and the Officers wear black crape round their arms.
A letter from Luxemburg says , that the French have made a sally from Metz against the Prussians, which was attended with considerable success.
We observe that several of the fortresses in France offer to surrender to the King, but not to the Allies.
Private letters from Paris give a dreadful picture of the state of affairs there. The conduct of the Prussians towards the citizens is animated by the extreme of revenge. No punishment attends the greatest of their excesses, which the letters say are rather encouraged than otherways. The exasperation which they have excited, is said to be such as to render it necessary for a very large force of the Allies remaining in the neighbourhood of Paris, for a long time.
Authentic information has been received from Paris, that the Ministers of Louis XVIII. have advised that Monarch to put the submission of the army to the test, by disbanding it universally and immediately. Measures for that purpose are already taken. Such officers and soldiers as are thought not to be dangerous will be taken into the new Royal Army.- It is understood that Louis XVIII. refused to accede to this measure, till the Allies had agreed positively on the integrity of the French territory, as the fundamental principle of the Treaty of Peace.
Crowds of people are flocking from all parts to Plymouth to see Bonaparte. We have heard that many persons of distinction have made repeated applications to his Royal Highness the Prince Regent for permission to go on board the Bellerophon. These applications have, however, been uniformly refused.
Amongst those down in the black list lately published by order of King Louis, we are sorry to see the name of the faithful Bertrand, and our sorrow is heightened by a consideration of its injustice. The character of Bertrand has always been respectable, and his fidelity to his fallen master has increased its interest. Uninfluenced by circumstances, unchanged by time, unintimidated by apprehension, he warmly adhered to the fortunes of Bonaparte, and sweetened his exile by the blessing of friendship. Leaving Elba by his command, he encountered the dangers of his enterprise, attended him to the field of battle, and now shares his prison. But Bertrand owes no allegiance to Louis- for, by being permitted to retire to Elba, he was solemnly recognised as a subject of Napoleon; his invasion of France was by the authority of his own Sovereign, who was completely independent. The proclamation of Louis, denouncing Napoleon as a traitor, was absurd, and founded on no acknowledged principles of national law- this he has, however, tacitly withdrawn, by not including Bonaparte in his penal Ordinance. If, then, the power over Napoleon be disclaimed, that over Bertrand is equally untenable; for as Louis previously assented to the transfer of his allegiance, he cannot resume it at his own discretion. Bertrand, therefore, never betrayed the King of France, and to include him with traitors, would confound the nature of the crime, and display a spirit of vengeance inconsistent with justice, and unworthy the character of a Monarch.
YOUNG BONAPARTE.- An article from Brussels, dated July 13, says:- "A few days ago the young Napoleon, who still resides at Schoenbrunn, was in great danger of losing his life in an airing to the village of St. Viet, near Schoenbrunn. Passing through the little river Wien, which was swelled a little, the force of the water drove back the horses, by which the coach was overturned, and the young Prince, with the Lady his attendant, fell into the water.- One of the Emperor's footmen, who was with the carriage, immediately leaped into the water, and saved the Prince, who, however, with his usual liveliness, did not seem at all discomposed and returned in high spirits to Schoenbrunn. Since his august mother has been absent, he often visits her in Baden, but always returns to Schoenbrunn in the evening."
Some American Papers to the 25th ult. have arrived. They are extremely hostile to this country. The return of Bonaparte to France is contemplated with extravagant joy- and one paper says, "Napoleon the Great is popular throughout America since his return from Elba and re-assumption of the throne, and he ought to be for the system of freedom he is now establishing."
We lament to hear that the failures in the North of England have spread great alarm. Several houses have already stopped, and the run on all banking houses is consequently great. Large sums of money have been sold out by some of the most respectable firms, to support themselves against the run which terror has created. The house of Mowbray and Co. that gave rise to the alarm, by its stoppage, had no fewer than 70 shops, in different villages in the North, where their notes were issued.