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LETTER OF THE PRINCE OF ECKMUHL
COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF of the ARMY of the LOIRE
"The Commissioners, in their communications, give the assurance that under a Constitutional Government, no reaction is to be feared; that the passions will be neutralized; that the Ministry will be one and responsible; that men and PRINCIPLES will be respected; that arbitrary dismissals shall not take place, either in the army or in other orders of society; and finally, that the army should be treated conformably to its honour - these are the terms transmitted by the Commissioners."
Letter of the Prince of ECKMUHL, &c.
We would call the attention of our readers, in the most marked manner, to the Letter of DAVOUST, which we inserted in our last number, and of which the above is an extract. It is definitive of the feeling and opinion of the whole military population of France, comprising all the activity, vigour, and enterprize of the empire. We need not enquire farther as to the nature of the peace which will be consequent on this state and condition of things. France is beaten down in arms by one of the most powerful confederacies which has ever been formed in Europe; and as long as that confederacy continues knit together by a common feeling of interest, the French Empire must remain prostrate in all its feelings, political and military. We have previously remarked, that this has been a war of principles; and that it is, in all the elements of its existence, independent of persons. NAPOLEON BONAPARTE, in adopting the BEE, as his emblem, did not refer, by a moral feeling, to industry; but by a political one to that extraordinary instinct which developes an order and a power, in the communities of that insect, superior to the results of reason among mankind. What constitutes the power of association in the Bee? The controol of an individual, on whose movements the fate and fortune of the whole hive attend. A point to swarm upon. Look at the descent of NAPOLEON from the coast of Elba. The order, alertness, unresisting and undividing union with which France formed upon his movement, gave a beautiful illustration to the emblem of their extraordinary leader. He is a kind of King Bee, of principles and feelings in France, which are indestructive: the submission of the army discloses to us this fact. It is national feeling which has extorted these sacrifices:- "these interests require sacrifices," says the letter in question. Can language be plainer? What then is LOUIS but the most palpable locum tenens of an authority which sleeps and submits. Declaration and experience equally demonstrate the fact. What can the Allies do in this situation of things? They cannot shut their eyes to a truth so self-evident; and here the dandling protection which they have afforded to him, proves a mill-stone on their shoulders.* They have made him the ally of those purposes against which they confederate; and the guarantee of the entireness and integrity of the French Empire. Without LOUIS, as the manikin of a French Sovereignty, they might partition, cut down, and dismantle; but to do it with the BOURBONS in their train, were to consign them to hatred, which would be eternal; and resentments ultimately fatal to their personal safety, perhaps as well as their authority. Let the Allies preserve the power of France, and they have fought the battles of France. Austria has an interest in sustaining France, and yet she allies herself with a host, which have an interest in breaking France down. Austria is giving the world a proof of the greatest folly of Kings. Was a nation ever beaten out of its opinions? The doctrine is absurd, and subversive of its own design. France never loved BONAPARTE more than in his adversity. His army never fought so desperately valorous as in the fatal battle of Waterloo. The Vendeans themselves offer now to unite " against dismemberment." All is done for the "salvation of France;" nothing for the love of Louis. The "dissolution of the army" is avoided only by submission. Thus is LOUIS seated on the Throne of BONAPARTE with an administration and an army, interested to a man in pushing him from his seat the first moment it can be done with impunity. How the Congress will settle the points which it has now to enact upon, is the next matter of political interest. Its former labours are a bad foretaste to calculate upon.
We are apprehensive that the Allied Sovereigns view, in the reaction of the times, nothing but an effort to throw off all respect for hereditary claims to power. They should reflect at the same time that this effort grows out of the abuse of hereditary power; and that the struggle of our days is one of those wholesome ebullitions of popular feeling which corrects the bad tendencies of old systems of Government. The Autocrat of Russia would denounce it treason in his Empire for any man to assert that he, (ALEXANDER), derives his right of rule from aught of human authority.- This is one of those regal weaknesses against which the world will rebel in proportion as it advances in knowledge. The putting down of all right of the people in France to chuse a Sovereign, is a fine authority of the principle which regulates the machinery of Government on Continental Europe. As the person is now secure, upon whom the elements of adventrous reform so powerfully rallied, much of the stamina of the Confederacy is done away with. It cannot now long be disguised that Russia is becoming a most dangerous power in Europe; that Prussia is bearding the House of Austria, and that Belgium is cut out of the power of France. A new series of Continental wars will arise out of these positions. A union of France and Austria will be one of the first effects of this new cast of political balances. A peace of twenty years would not materially soften down the resentments of France against Prussia: the contribution of 100,0000 francs attempted to be levied on Paris - the threatened explosion of her works of art - the sequestrations of property of Officers - these will be actively handed down as a military legacy of the days of French humiliation; and woe to Berlin when the French ensign shall again be seen in its vicinity.
Notwithstanding the apparent decisiveness of recent occurrences, it requires but little political acumen to discern that the theatre of war remains prolific of interest. Paris, with 200,000 enemies in the midst of her, remains but doubtfully at peace; and the submission of DAVOUST, his hoisting the white flag, &c. are evidently mere temporizing measures, to avert, if possible, the blow which the Allies are preparing to direct against him. In his last address to his Army, he says, "Soldiers, defend our unhappy country in the name of LOUIS XVIII.; this Monarch and all our countrymen will thank us for it; we shall make common cause with those brave Vendeans who have just given us a touching example, declaring that they would unite with us to combat the enemies of France, and you will have, besides, preserved to your country a numerous and brave army."
Thus it appears that if the Allies are resolved on partitioning France - the war will continue, with this difference, that the name of LOUIS XVIII. will be substituted for that of NAPOLEON, and the white flag will float in the place of the tri-coloured.
*What a censure do Ministers convey to the Duke of WELLINGTON for the (reported more than authorised) share he has had in urging the recent return of the old King to Paris, when they allow their principal organ (The Courier) to publish such paragraphs as the following.-
"The Allies see that the removal of BONAPARTE has changed nothing in the disposition and pretensions of his troops; they see that the King, however well-meaning, is still at Ghent, where, indeed, it would have been much better both for himself and for Europe that he should have remained till the Allies had completed the arrangements they may deem necessary respecting France." - Courier of Wednesday last.
PARIS, JULY 22.- The review of the English army under the walls of Paris, which was to have taken place on Thursday, is put off till Sunday next.
Yesterday morning Lord Hill reviewed in the Champs Elysées the 1st Corps of the English army, consisting of three regiments of the line, one of the carabineers, and two of light horse.
It is said that a corps of the army of the Loire, under the orders of General Lefebvre Desnouettes, has set off for Auvergue, probably to join the army of Marshal Suchet.
The white flag now waves on the extremity of the bridge of Orleans, on the left bank of the Loire.
COPY OF AN ADDRESS TO THE KING BY THE ARMY OF THE LOIRE:
Sire.- The army, unanimous in its views and affections, in order to be brought to a free and simple submission to your Majesty's Government, has no need either of receiving any private impulse, or of altering its spirit or sentiments; it is enough for it to consult the sentiments that have animated it under all circumstances, and the spirit which guided it during the last 25 years of political storms.
Its opinions, its acts, the conduct of each of its members, always had for their actuating cause that love of country, ardent, deep, exclusive, capable of every effort, of every sacrifice, respectable even in its errors and wanderings, which at all times commanded the esteem of Europe, and which secures to us that of posterity.
The Generals, the Officers, and the soldiers, who now surround their colours, and who are attached to them with the greatest constancy and love, even when they are most unfortunate, are not men who can be accused of regretting private advantages.
To other thoughts, therefore, to motives more dignified and noble must be ascribed the silence which the army has hitherto kept.
From the lowest soldier to the officer of highest rank, the French army numbers in its ranks only citizens, sons, fathers of citizens; it is intimately connected with the nation; it cannot separate its cause from that of the French people; it adopts with them, it adopts sincerely the Government of your Majesty; it will cause the happiness of France by generous and complete oblivion of all that is past, by effacing every trace of dissention, by respecting the rights of all.
Convinced of this truth, full of respect and confidence in the sentiments expressed by your Majesty, the army swears to you, with entire submission, a fidelity, proof against all trial; it will shed its blood in fulfilment of the oaths which it this day pronounces to defend the King and France.
[Here follow the signatures.]
Head-quarters near Orleans, July 14, 1815.
|(A true Copy)
|The Prince of ECKMUHL, Marshal
of France, Commanding the Armies
of the Loire and the Pyrenees
TOURS, JULY 19.
ARMY OF THE LOIRE - ORDER OF THE DAY
Faubourg d'Orleans, July 16.
SOLDIERS,- I communicate to you, by an Order of the Day, the submission which the Generals and Officers of the Army of which the command is confided to me, have made to the Government of Louis XVIII.
It is to you, Soldiers, to complete this submission by your obedience; hoist the white cockade and colours.
I demand from you, I know, a great sacrifice; we have all been connected with these colours for these twenty-five years; but the interests of our country commands this sacrifice.
I am incapable, Soldiers, of giving you an order which should not be founded on these sentiments, or which should be at variance with honour.
Last year, under similar circumstances, the Government of our country having changed, I defended Hamburgh and Harburgh to the last moment, in the name of Louis XVIII listening then, as I do now, only to the interest of our country.
All my countrymen have applauded my conduct; a fine army has been preserved to France; not a soldier has quitted his ranks, knowing that he serves his country whatever be its Government, and that an army cannot deliberate.
Soldiers! Continue the same conduct; defend our unhappy country in the name of Louis XVIII. This Monarch, and all our fellow-countrymen, will feel themselves obliged to us for so doing - we will make common cause with those brave Vendeans who have just set us an affecting example, declaring that they would join us to fight the enemies of France - and you will, moreover, have preserved a brave and numerous army for the country.
I expect of you the same state of discipline of which you have given proofs since your departure from Paris.
The Marshal Commander-in-Chief of the Armies of the Loire and the Pyrenees,
(Signed) The Prince of ECKMUHL
A true Copy,
The Lieutenant-General Commanding a Division of the Army of the Loire, and Superior Commandant of the 22nd Military Division,
We have selected from various sources the following particulars respecting this extraordinary Man:-
EXTRACTS OF A LETTER FROM AN OFFICER OF HIS MAJESTY'S SHIP CYRUS, DATED BASQUE ROADS, JULY 16TH, 1815:-
"July 1st, 1815.- While within Isle Dieu, at anchor, assisting the Royalists, a boat came on board from his Majesty's ship Bellerophon with dispatches, announcing that Bonaparte had quitted Paris for some port to the Southward, intending to go to America; and requiring us to come down and assist her in the blockade of Rochefort.? We immediately proceeded to Quiberon Bay to Admiral Hotham with this intelligence.
"July 3d. - Arrived at Quiberon Bay at 3 p.m.; communicated with Admiral Hotham, and sailed again directly to join the Bellerophon off this port.
"July 6th.- At 6 a.m. chased and boarded a Prussian just come out of the Charente, notwithstanding the hostility between the two nations. Examined her minutely, but found no suspicious characters on board. Received information that Bonaparte was not at Rochefort, but daily expected.
"July 8th.- Resumed our station, after capturing a boat, containing three soldiers, belonging to the Isle Noirmourtier, who endeavoured to pass for fishermen:- gained no information.
"July 12th.- At 1 p.m. passed near to her and the Slaney. Bellerophon telegraphed us, "Keep close off Balaine Light-house: Bonaparte is there endeavouring to escape.- Examine every description of vessels closely for him. I have two of his Generals, who have asked for the frigates to pass."
"At 3 p.m. saw a brig coming out of the Breton passage; chased her for twelve hours, and found her an American without passengers, who told us that he had no doubt but that Bonaparte was at Rochefort, but it was not publicly known at the place he had left (St. Martin's, Isle Rhé)
"July 13th.- At half-past 1 p.m. saw the Bellerophon and Slaney some distance to leeward, with flags of truce at their mast-heads, and a chasse marée with a similar flag so that we had little doubt of Napoleon having surrendered, or being at least negociating for that purpose.
"July 14.- the Superb, Admiral Hotham, directed us to anchor within the Breton Passage, the more effectually to blockade it, and then passed on to Basque Roads to join the Bellerophon.
"July 15.- The Slaney passed us, and telegraphed, "For England, and with important dispatches."
"July 16.- We were recalled to this place, and found the DISTURBER OF THE WORLD, whom we had been so anxiously looking for, safe on board the Bellerophon. He was just returning to the latter ship from breakfasting on board the Superb with the Admiral, who ordered the yards to be manned as a mark of respect.
"We passed close to the Bellerophon several times: Captain Maitland told us, "I have got Bonaparte on board."
"Napoleon stood exposed at full length on the gangway, about twenty yards distant, to survey us, and we in return examined him, as you may be assured, with eager and minute attention. He was dressed in a green uniform coat with two epaulets and a red collar - a broad red sash over his shoulder, a large star on the left breast, white waistcoat, pantaloons, boots, and a large cocked hat with the tri-coloured cockade. I knew the figure and face instantly; it was impossible for anyone, who had ever examined the lineaments with attention to mistake them. Bertrand, Savary, L'Allemand, and others were with him.
"He first sent out to Captain Maitland for permission to proceed to America in the frigates, which was refused; but an offer was made of referring him, if he came out, to the Admiral. He then asked for a brig, and afterwards for a schooner - requests equally inadmissible. Afterwards he formed the plan for going in two chasse marées out of the Breton Passage in the night, and being informed that this ship would intercept him, he replied, "He would try, for we would not suspect such small vessels." This determination was altered, probably, by reflecting, that if taken prisoner he would have no claim on our generosity, while by throwing himself into our power, there might at least be some hope in setting up such a claim. He then surrendered after threatening to force his passage.
"On board the Bellerophon he seemed to think himself Emperor, taking possession of Captain M.'s cabin, and afterwards inviting him to dinner. When he went on board the Superb this morning, Bertrand first ascended the side, and was introduced to the Admiral; Napoleon followed.- "The Emperor," said Captain M. Napoleon bowed to the Admiral, without further ceremony walked into his cabin, and sent his compliments that he would be glad to speak with him!
"Nothing escapes his notice; his eyes are in every place, and on every object, from the greatest to the most minute. He immediately asked an explanation of the ropes, blocks, masts, and yards, and all the machinery of the ship. He sent for the Boatswain, to question him; that officer always fitting out the French ships. He requested the Marines to pass in review before him, examining the arms, evolutions, dress, &c. &c. and expressed himself highly pleased. He enquired into the situation of the seamen, their pay, prize-money, clothes, food, tobacco, &c. and when told of their being supplied by a Purser or Commissary, asked if he was not a rogue.
"In conversing with the Admiral, he said, 'I have given myself up to the English, but I would not have done so to any other of the Allied Powers. In surrendering to any of them I should be subject to the caprice and will of an individual: in submitting to the English, I place myself at the mercy of a nation.'- Adieu"
"ON BOARD THE BELLEROPHON.
"By some passengers who came in the Bellerophon it appears, that Bonaparte was quite at ease on board that ship; took possession of the Captain's cabin, sans ceremonie, invited the officers of the ship to his table, talked with great freedom on the present state of things, said it was impossible for the Bourbons to govern France, and that Napoleon II. would very soon be recalled to the throne, that Fouche was an ass, and totally unfit for the office assigned to him. He acknowledged that England alone had ruined all his grand plans, and that but for her he had now been Emperor of the East as well as of the West. He walked on the poop and quarter-deck, conversed with the seamen, and affected great gaiety and unconcern. In short, such is the talent of this "Child and Champion of Jacobinism," that before they arrived in Torbay he was considered by all on board as a devilish good fellow."
[FROM FLINDELL'S WESTERN LUMINARY.]
"Exeter, Monday night, July 24.
"The Bellerophon, Captain Maitland, with Bonaparte on board, has been lying off Torbay the whole of to-day. This morning an Officer from the ship passed through Exeter, for London; it is presumed, for instructions, as the ship is evidently waiting ? lying off and on, though the wind is fair for her to go up Channel.
"Several Gentlemen from Exeter have been down to Torquay to-day, (23 miles from Exeter), and left it this evening. They bring many particulars. Multitudes are flocking to the coast to see the ship; and many Gentlemen have gone off and sailed round her, but no one, that we hear of, has been admitted on board, though some have been alongside.
"Bonaparte, we are told, walks the deck freely, and sometimes talks to the sailors. The Officers treat him with great politeness.
"There are six General Officers, we are told, in his suite.
"From the manner in which Captain Maitland appears to be waiting for instructions, we fear the Bellerophon will be off as soon as he receives them, without landing her prisoner here, to gratify the anxious curiosity of the neighbourhood."
"Persons from London and from other parts, are flocking down to Plymouth, though they know that Bonaparte is not expected to land, and that they cannot go on board the Bellerophon.? But they can row in boats round the vessel, and can occasionally catch a glimpse of him. He is the greater part of the day in the stern gallery, either walking backwards and forwards with his hands behind him, as he is represented in some of the pictures in the print shops, or surveying the shipping and the shore through a glass. In general he keeps alone, Bertrand and Lallemand remaining at some distance behind him.? Occasionally he beckons to one of them to point out something to him, or to make some observation. He then walks on alone. Captain Maitland is more frequently with him than any of his suite, and he pays him great attention. He is in good health. As usual he passes but a short time at his meals, and drinks but little wine. He is said to drink regularly to the health of the Prince Regent. Coffee is regularly served up to him on the deck, and when he first came near the land about Torbay, he is reported to have exclaimed, "Enfin, voila ce beau pays!" (At length, here is this fine country!) adding that he had never seen it except from Calais and Boulogne, when the only points that could be seen were the white and bold rocks about Dover. He is plainly dressed, in general in a green coat, without any decorations, and a cocked hat.
A letter from an officer on board the Bellerophon gives the following description of his person:-
"I observed his person particularly, and can describe him thus: He is about 5 feet 7 inches in height, very strongly made, and well proportioned; very broad and deep chest; legs and thighs proportioned with great symmetry and strength, a small, round, and handsome foot. His countenance is sallow, and as it were deeply tinged by hot climates; but the most commanding air I ever saw. His eyes grey, and the most piercing that you can imagine. His glance, you fancy, searches into your inmost thoughts. His hair dark brown, and no appearance of grey. His features are handsome now, and when younger he must have been a very handsome man. He is rather fat, and his belly protuberant, but he appears active notwithstanding. His step and demeanour altogether commanding. He looks about 45 or 46 years of age. He is extremely curious, and never passes any thing remarkable in the ship without immediately demanding its use, and inquiring minutely into the manner thereof. He also stops and asks the officers divers questions relative to the time they have been in the service, what actions, &c.; and he caused all of us to be introduced to him the first day he came on board. He has also asked several questions about the marines, particularly those who appeared to have been some time in the service, and about the warrant officers, midshipmen, seamen, &c. He was but a very short time on board when he asked that the boatswain might be sent for, in order that he might look at him, and was very inquisitive as to the nature of his duty. He dresses in green uniform, with red facings, and edged with red, two plain gold epaulettes, the lappels of the coat cut round and turned back, white waistcoat and breeches, and military boots and spurs, the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour on his left breast.? He professes his intention (if he is allowed to reside in England) to adopt the English customs and manners, and declares that he will never meddle with politics more. The army which left Paris, and united with others on the Loire, wanted him to join them and resume his title, which he refused to do. He declares that not another "goutte de sang" shall be shed on his account. Fortunate, indeed, it would have been if he really had been of this opinion some years back.
"His followers still treat him with the greatest respect, not one of them, not even the Duke of Rovigo himself, ever speaking to him without being uncovered the whole time. He does not appear out until about half past ten, though he rises about seven. He breakfasts in the French fashion at eleven, and dines at six. He spends most of the day alone in the after-cabin, and reads a great deal. He retires to bed about eight. He has not latterly been much on the quarter-deck. His suite is composed of fifty persons.
"General Bertrand appears to be a fine and faithful soldier. He has never abandoned Napoleon in his adversity or prosperity. He was at Elba with him, and, I believe, intends accompanying him (if he is permitted) whatever his destination may be. It was this officer who constructed the bridge over the Danube, from Isle de Lobau, which saved the French army after the battle of Asperne. Madame Bertrand, I believe, was born in Martinique, of Irish parents, and her maiden name was Dillon. She is extremely pleasant and affable, and greatly attached to Napoleon's interests. The Duc de Rovigo is a fine looking man, about 50, with a countenance expressive of superior talents. De Lascasses is a little fellow, about 5 feet 1 inch, very clever. He is the author of the Historical Atlas, which I suppose you have seen. L'Allemand is considered an excellent officer, and commanded the light infantry of the Imperial Guard in the battle of Waterloo."
FOUND AFTER THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO.
The genuineness of this curious collection of letters, rests at present on the evidence of a Belgic Officer of the name of Van Uchelin. It, however, contains nothing which can excite suspicion of its want of authenticity. We have only room for the following extracts:-
Fleury, cabinet secretary of Bonaparte, writes from Bourg libre, under the date of the 6th of June, that the secret agent who was to have arrived in Switzerland, was not at the place of his destination, but had set off for Vienna.
Joseph Bonaparte, under date of the 13th of June, sent the following letter to his brother Napoleon, in relation to another secret agent:-
SIRE,- The Swiss, Olivier, of the Pays de Vaud, whom your Majesty lately saw, has returned from his native country. He brings with him details, which can be communicated to your Majesty alone. I therefore send him to you. The devotedness of this man is unbounded. Sire, your Majesty's most devoted and faithful subject and brother, JOSEPH.
Bonaparte's travelling retinue consisted of the Grand Marshal, and of Generals Drouet, Corbineau, Flahaut, and Dejean; of Colonels Bussy, Lahedoyere and Letort, as Adjutants; of M. de Turenne, chamberlain; M. de Guerchy, marshal de logis; General Foulart, chief equerry; Barons Mesgriny and Canisp, equerries, and two pages; of the orderly officers Colonels Spurgant, St. Yon, Dumoulin; Lariboissere, St. Jacques, Planat, Lannoi, Resigny, Regnault, Alfred, Montesquieu, Autru, Amillet, and Chiappe; there were besides, the cabinet secretaries, Fain, Authery, and Fleury, and three valets.
Note in Bonaparte's handwriting:-
"June 12th, set off from Paris and slept at Laon, the 13th slept at Avesnes, the 14th at B (Beaumont.)"
Bonaparte's travelling library was found in six trunks, and amounted to about 800 volumes. Among them were, Homer, Ossian, Voltaire's works, Gil Blas, Don Quixotte, Voltaire's Charles XII. &c. all beautiful editions.
Bonaparte wrote on the 11th June the following note to Count Lavalette, Director-General of the Posts:
"Monsieur Count Lavalette,- As I said in my speech of this day, that I should depart this night, I wish you would look to it, that no post-horses be taken from the road by which I travel; that particular attention be paid to the persons to whom horses are given on the neighbouring roads, and that no courier or estafette be sent off."
On the 11th of June Bonaparte wrote seven notes to the War Minister, Marshal Davoust; amongst which was the following:-
"Pray let Marshal Massena come: should he wish to go to Metz, he shall be appointed Governor there, and receive the supreme command of the 3d and 4th Military Divisions. Look to it that (here the name is wanting) be with the army of the North."
In another letter he says: "Let Ney come; if he wishes to be present at the first battle, he must be at Avesnes by the 18th; where my head-quarters will be."
"I perceive," says he, in a third letter to the Minister at War, "that the Federates are 14,000 strong - 3000 muskets must have been given to them; one-third of these people are, however, still unarmed: I think this is sufficient, as they may continue to be armed with the muskets which are daily finished, and as we have still 300,000 men to arm, who should be levied. Pray give me the assurance that from this date to the 15th, all the National Guards in Alsace, Lorraine, and Dauphiny shall be armed."
A fourth letter to Eckmuhl is as follows:- "One hundred and fifty-eight naval cannon have been brought to Paris. Look to it that they be placed in battery by the 20th inst.; 80 others will be brought before that date. It is important that these 240 pieces should be mounted by the 20th , that I may be without anxiety about the city of Paris."
"I wish," says he, in another letter to the War Minister, "to have a statement of the muskets, and the places where they are. Send 6000 to Soissons, to be at my disposal, 3000 to Guise, and 3000 to Avesnes. But they must be sent quickly, that, when we are victorious, I may arm with them the peasants in Belgium, Liege, &c. Give me also a list of the Belgian Officers who are here. Send also a Belgian Staff Officer for the suite of the General Staff. You know how necessary these people may become."
Another letter to the War Minister, of the 11th of June, is as follows:- "Acquaint Marshal Suchet by estafette and by telegraph, that hostilities will commence on the 14th, and that on that day he may make himself master of Montmeillan. It is necessary that he should make hostile movements before that time."
To the Minister of Marine, Bonaparte wrote on the 11th, "I direct that you break off all communications by sea, and that no person nor packet-boat dare to pass any more, under any pretence whatever."
The following is another letter, dated Paris, June 11, to his favourite Orator, Count Regnault de St. Jean D'Angely:-
"I have received your letter. I have fixed at 60,000 francs, including every thing, the salary of Ministers of State. Besides this, I have ordered Peyruche to pay you 6,000 fr. monthly in your capacity of President so long as I shall be with the army. I desire that this additional salary remain secret."
There is a note below the minute, "wrote in consequence to Baron Peyruche."
TUESDAY'S LONDON GAZETTE
Admiralty-Office, July 25, 1815.
Extract of a Letter from Captain Maitland, of his Majesty's ship Bellerophon, to John Wilson Croker, Esq. Dated in Basque Roads, the 14th instant.
For the information of my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, I have to acquaint you that the Count Las Casses and General Allemand, this day came on board his Majesty's ship under my command, with a proposal for me to receive on board Napoleon Bonaparte, for the purpose of throwing himself on the generosity of his Royal Highness the Prince Regent.
Conceiving myself authorised by their Lordships' secret order, I have acceded to the proposal, and he is to embark on board this ship to-morrow morning.
That no misunderstanding might arise, I have explicitly and clearly explained to the Count Las Casses, that I have no authority whatever for terms of any sort; but that all I can do is to convey him and his suite to England, to be received in such manner as his Royal Highness may deem expedient.
We publish in our second and fifth pages some very interesting particulars of the conduct of BONAPARTE since his surrender to Captain MAITLAND. They are characteristic of the man, and exhibit him as preserving an equanimity of mind which few could maintain under similar circumstances. The Courier says that Ministers are offended at his continued affectation of the style of a Sovereign, and that in consequence they have sent down orders to treat him simply as a General. This betrays a littleness of mind, which we are sorry to see exhibited towards a fallen foe. Of the crimes and cruelties imputed to NAPOLEON we shall never become the defenders. They were all of the same nature which have been committed by ambitious, successful men, from time immemorial. We now consider him as politically dead, and therefore are far more inclined to bring to our recollection his wonderful talents which made him what he was, than his bad deeds which have made him what he is. A generous man seeks not the destruction nor the degradation of his enemy.- he is satisfied with his submission. But it is said that BONAPARTE'S submission was not made until he was compelled to it, and therefore that he is not entitled to receive any benefit from it. Few persons yield until they perceive their further resistance is useless, but it must be admitted, there was no positive necessity of his surrendering himself to us. The Emperor of RUSSIA has always been distinguished for generosity, and, we have no doubt, he would have shewn himself worthy of that character had he given himself up to him. But, notwithstanding the peculiar provocations he has given Britain, he singles her out from all the States of Europe in whose power to place himself. There is something generous in human nature which inclines us always to consider fallen greatness with pity. When we therefore view the captive NAPOLEON walking the quarter-deck of a British man of war, anxiously waiting the determination of our Government, as to the place of his future imprisonment, we cannot help recurring to the man, who, at Vienna, imposed laws on the Emperor of AUSTRIA, who did the same to the King of PRUSSIA at Berlin, and the same to the Emperor of RUSSIA at Tilsit - to him before whom the greatest have trembled - the creator of Kings, and the dispenser of Kingdoms.
The future destination of this once great man is finally fixed, and St. Helena is authoritively said to be the place. None of his suite are to be allowed to accompany him, and it is said his money is to be taken from him.* The Council which settled his fate was held on Friday, and in the evening Mr. GREY, the Messenger, was sent to Plymouth with the result. It is said, that Sir H. LOWE is to be the Military Officer appointed to be his guard. He will succeed Mr. WILKES, who is in the Company's service as Governor of the Island. The Company's troops will be replaced by a King's regiment, and there will be an article in the new Treaty of Paris, by which the expence of this establishment will be made a constituent part of our contingent towards the force that is to be kept up for the maintenance of the peace of Europe.- Sir George COCKBURN and Sir HUDSON LOWE attended Ministers yesterday, on the subject of their appointment to this service.
The following is a literal and correct copy of the Letter which BONAPARTE sent to the PRINCE REGENT:
"En butte aux factions qui divisent mon pays et à l'inimities des plus grandes Puissances de l'Europe, j'ai terminé ma carriere politique, et je viens comme THEMISTOCLE, m'asseoir sur les foyers du peuple Britannique. Je me mets sous la protection de ses lois, que je reclame de V.A.R.comme le plus puissant, le plus constant, et le plus genereux de mes ennemis. "NAPOLEON."
"Exposed to the factions which divide my country, and to the enmity of the great powers of Europe, I have terminated my political career, and I come, like THEMISTOCLES, to throw myself upon the hospitality (m'asseoir sur les foyers) of the British Nation. I place myself under the protection of its laws, which I claim from your Royal Highness as the most powerful, the most constant, and the most generous of my enemies. "NAPOLEON."
"Rochefort, 13th July."
* We think BONAPARTE has been misled, not as to the character of the English Nation, but as to the manly, generous dispositions of the Members of the English Government. Their narrow minds make them eagerly desirous of trampling on a prostrate enemy. Had he been rightly advised, NAPOLEON would have sought the protection of the Emperor ALEXANDER. In that case, had he even been sent to Siberia, his faithful adherents would not have been separated from him, and Siberia, with the consolation attached to the company of real and tried friends, is far preferable to the fairest spot on earth, when torn from every connection which makes life valuable.
Affairs in France seem approaching towards another crisis. Urged by all his Allies, and probably encouraged by his grand opponent being in the power of one of them, LOUIS XVIII. has published two Royal Ordinances affecting some of the Chiefs of the BONAPARTEAN party. By one of these Decrees, the following persons who were raised to the Peerage by LOUIS, and afterwards sat in the Chamber of Peers nominated by BONAPARTE, are erased from the Peerage. Their names are-
Counts Clement de Ris, Colchin, Cordunet, Aboville, de Croix, Dedeley-d'Agier, Dejean, Fabre de l'Aude, Gassendi. Lacepede, Latour Maubourg, de Barral (Archbishop of Tours,) Boissy d'Anglas, Conclaux, Casabianca, Montesquiou, Ponticoulant, Rampon, Segur, Valence, and Beillard; Dukes of Dantzic, Praslin, Plaisance, Elchingen, Albufera, Cornegliano, Treviso, and Cadore.
By the 2d ordinance, the following Officers are to be brought before a Military Tribunal, and tried "for waging war against France and the Government," namely-
Ney, Labedoyere, the two brothers Lallemand, Drouet d'Erlon, Lefebvre, Desnouettes, Ameilli, Breyer, Gilly, Mouton Duvernet, Grouchy, Clausel, Laborde, Debelle, Bertrand, Drouet, Cambrone, Lavalette, and Rovigo.
By virtue of the same Decree, the individuals whose names are subjoined, are to quit Paris in three days, and to retire to such places in the interior as shall be assigned to them by the Minister of Police, where they are to remain under his surveillance, till the two Chambers decide which of them are to quit the kingdom, or to be delivered over to the Courts of Justice. Their names are-
Soult, Alix, Excelmans, Bassano, Marbot, Felix, Lepelletier, Boulay de la Meurthe, Mehee, Fressinet, Thibaudeau, Carnot, Vandamme, General Lamarque, Lobau, Harel, Pire, Barrere, Arnault, Pommereuil, Regnaud de Saint Jean d'Angely, Arrighi, Dejean, Garrau, Real, Bouvier-Dumolard, Merlin of Douay, Durbach, Dirat, Defermont, Bory-Saint-Vincent, Felix Desportes, Garnier-de-Saintes, Mellinet, Hulin, Cloys, Courtin, Forbin-Janson, and Le Lorne Dideville.
By the same Ordinance it is decreed, that no other names are ever to be added to the foregoing lists. One Ordinance is signed by Prince TALLEYRAND, and the second by FOUCHE, Duke of OTRANTO.
This looks somewhat like decision, but we fancy it will be found only its resemblance. We observe that the names of DAVOUST, RAPP, REY, BRUNE, and LECOURBE, who are now all in arms, do not appear in either of the lists, a sufficient proof of the want of will or of power in the KING to punish them. If severity is to become the order of the day in France the Allies must become the executioners; for we are persuaded none others will be found strong enough to brave those dangers which must result from the condemnation of a part, for acts in which the great majority of the nation has clearly participated.
The conduct of the aged MONARCH and the resolution of the Generals of the army on the Loire are, however, likely to be soon brought to the test. The Paris Papers mention that a Decree for disbanding that army is daily expected to be issued. If it submits, the path of the KING will for the present be smooth? if otherwise, he will be placed in a situation of peculiar danger and difficulty. If we may draw an inference from appearances as they now present themselves, much blood will be shed before the French army will be induced to disband itself, but such is the superiority of force opposed to it that we acknowledge we see little hope that resistance will better its condition. BLUCHER is at Chartres, on his road to the Loire, and it is said the Allied armies are about to surround their antagonists at all points. SUCHET, LECOURBE, and RAPP have joined forces to those of DAVOUST, who it is supposed has upwards of 150,000 men under his command.
Paris Papers, amongst which is the new Official Journal, ci-devant the Moniteur, were received in town last night. The latter contains an official note, signed METTERNIICH, CASTLEREAGH, NESSELRODE, and HARDENBERG; addressed to Messrs. TALLEYRAND, FOUCHE, & Co. or the Ministers of the French KING. It is too long for insertion, but its seeming import is the maintenance of the Allied armies, when stationed by different corps in different places. From this document it would appear that military possession is to be taken of France by the Allies, in the name, of King LOIUS. "The authorities of the KING," say the 4th and 5th articles, "shall be immediately re-established in the departments, and the Prefects and Sub-Prefects replaced in the exercise of their functions. In order to protect these authorities, Military Governors are to be appointed," &c. In the concluding paragraph pf the note, the Allied Ministers "flatter themselves that the King's Ministers will recognise in these arrangements the sincere desire which they have to contribute to the re-establishment of the Royal authority." It will be remarked that this official note was drawn up on the day on which the KING issued his ordonnances relative to those who are to be tried, banished, or removed from the Peerage.
The inference we draw from these publications is, that the poor King is a tool in the hands of the Allies, who compel him to sanction every measure they deem it necessary to adopt. They feel they are unable to establish the authority of this Monarch of their own, without a military power, which military power they must furnish. France, therefore, must have the pleasure of the company of the Prussians, &c. &c. for a much longer time than was originally expected. We have no doubt, even if the army under DAVOUST disbands itself without resistance, that France will require a foreign army to support the BOURBON civil force for years.
The French Journals now begin to speculate on the terms of peace which they are likely to obtain from the Allies. It must be allowed that the Parisians at this moment exhibit such a barefaced, contemptible prostitution of political sentiment, that were it not for public grounds we should care but little what became of them. The French character indeed at this moment appears sunk to the lowest state of degradation. So much so, that the people glory in their base versatility. The most consistent of them are marked out for punishment, whilst the most distinguished time-servers, those who, like FOUCHE and TALLEYRAND, always have been ready to bow the knee to every political BAAL, are honoured and rewarded. The following are reported to be the heads of the conditions proposed by the Allies. The first point, and without which all others would be nugatory, is, that the army of the Loire, whatever may be the terms on which the KING might be disposed to accept of its submission, shall be disbanded. If the men disband and retire to their own homes, the Chiefs alone will be singled out for punishment. If they refuse, force must be used. As some security for the future peace of Europe, the Allies next require three of the strongest fortresses to be retained by them for a given time. They lastly demand a pecuniary compensation adequate to the expences they have incurred by the renewal of the war. The amount of this sum is differently stated. Some reports mention thirty millions sterling.
It is asserted, in private letters, that Davoust has under him near 200,000 men, with which he guards the right bank of the Loire with the most jealous vigilance.
It is said that Davoust, Brune, and the other French Generals of the army on the Loire have hoisted the black flag- and the Officers wear black crape round their arms.
A letter from Luxemburg says , that the French have made a sally from Metz against the Prussians, which was attended with considerable success.
We observe that several of the fortresses in France offer to surrender to the King, but not to the Allies.
Private letters from Paris give a dreadful picture of the state of affairs there. The conduct of the Prussians towards the citizens is animated by the extreme of revenge. No punishment attends the greatest of their excesses, which the letters say are rather encouraged than otherways. The exasperation which they have excited, is said to be such as to render it necessary for a very large force of the Allies remaining in the neighbourhood of Paris, for a long time.
Authentic information has been received from Paris, that the Ministers of Louis XVIII. have advised that Monarch to put the submission of the army to the test, by disbanding it universally and immediately. Measures for that purpose are already taken. Such officers and soldiers as are thought not to be dangerous will be taken into the new Royal Army.- It is understood that Louis XVIII. refused to accede to this measure, till the Allies had agreed positively on the integrity of the French territory, as the fundamental principle of the Treaty of Peace.
Crowds of people are flocking from all parts to Plymouth to see Bonaparte. We have heard that many persons of distinction have made repeated applications to his Royal Highness the Prince Regent for permission to go on board the Bellerophon. These applications have, however, been uniformly refused.
Amongst those down in the black list lately published by order of King Louis, we are sorry to see the name of the faithful Bertrand, and our sorrow is heightened by a consideration of its injustice. The character of Bertrand has always been respectable, and his fidelity to his fallen master has increased its interest. Uninfluenced by circumstances, unchanged by time, unintimidated by apprehension, he warmly adhered to the fortunes of Bonaparte, and sweetened his exile by the blessing of friendship. Leaving Elba by his command, he encountered the dangers of his enterprise, attended him to the field of battle, and now shares his prison. But Bertrand owes no allegiance to Louis- for, by being permitted to retire to Elba, he was solemnly recognised as a subject of Napoleon; his invasion of France was by the authority of his own Sovereign, who was completely independent. The proclamation of Louis, denouncing Napoleon as a traitor, was absurd, and founded on no acknowledged principles of national law- this he has, however, tacitly withdrawn, by not including Bonaparte in his penal Ordinance. If, then, the power over Napoleon be disclaimed, that over Bertrand is equally untenable; for as Louis previously assented to the transfer of his allegiance, he cannot resume it at his own discretion. Bertrand, therefore, never betrayed the King of France, and to include him with traitors, would confound the nature of the crime, and display a spirit of vengeance inconsistent with justice, and unworthy the character of a Monarch.
YOUNG BONAPARTE.- An article from Brussels, dated July 13, says:- "A few days ago the young Napoleon, who still resides at Schoenbrunn, was in great danger of losing his life in an airing to the village of St. Viet, near Schoenbrunn. Passing through the little river Wien, which was swelled a little, the force of the water drove back the horses, by which the coach was overturned, and the young Prince, with the Lady his attendant, fell into the water.- One of the Emperor's footmen, who was with the carriage, immediately leaped into the water, and saved the Prince, who, however, with his usual liveliness, did not seem at all discomposed and returned in high spirits to Schoenbrunn. Since his august mother has been absent, he often visits her in Baden, but always returns to Schoenbrunn in the evening."
Some American Papers to the 25th ult. have arrived. They are extremely hostile to this country. The return of Bonaparte to France is contemplated with extravagant joy- and one paper says, "Napoleon the Great is popular throughout America since his return from Elba and re-assumption of the throne, and he ought to be for the system of freedom he is now establishing."
We lament to hear that the failures in the North of England have spread great alarm. Several houses have already stopped, and the run on all banking houses is consequently great. Large sums of money have been sold out by some of the most respectable firms, to support themselves against the run which terror has created. The house of Mowbray and Co. that gave rise to the alarm, by its stoppage, had no fewer than 70 shops, in different villages in the North, where their notes were issued.
ARRIVAL OF BONAPARTE AT PLYMOUTH.
"TORBAY, JULY 26.- The Bellerophon, Captain Maitland, sailed this morning about five o'clock for Plymouth, with Bonaparte and suite. On board the Slaney sloop is Marshal Baron Gourgon. Never was such a sight exhibited in Torbay before. There are ladies and gentlemen from 60 to 70 miles distance and upwards come this morning; never was such a concourse of people seen."
"PLYMOUTH, JULY 26.- The Bellerophon, of 74 guns, anchored in the Sound, about half-past four o'clock this afternoon, from Torbay, having Bonaparte on board. It is reported he will not be landed in this country but sent from hence to St. Helena."
ANOTHER LETTER, SAME DATE.
"Bonaparte is in the Sound. I have just received a letter, of which the following is an extract, from an Officer on board the Superb, Basque Roads, July 18, 1816:-
"The disturber of the world is our's; I have been some hours in his company, and have had conversation with him. Knowing his character as an individual, his fame as a General, and his conduct as an Emperor, the mind is lost in astonishment in seeing these in the person of a stout, inanimate, and plain-looking man, without a feature or expression of countenance indicative of any thing that can make an impression on the mind. His delivery is quick, and his ideas flow most rapidly; he converses on all subjects.
"On seeing the portrait of Lord Hood in the Superb's cabin, he remarked that he was the person who threw all the shells at Lord Hood's fleet at Toulon. He inquired why we objected to his residing in America?
"He declares, from the first, he intended to throw himself on the British Government if he was not allowed to go to America; he had determined never to give himself up, or receive protection from the Emperors of Russia, Austria, or King of Prussia; for although they were only single members of the nation, they ruled entirely their respective kingdoms; by giving himself up to the British nation, he threw himself on the generosity of every individual, and acknowledges that in England only he is safe. He says, never was a battle so severely contested as that of Waterloo. His troops knew and felt that they never had more to gain or more to lose than at that time, and never had they fought harder, and they were only overcome by the superiority of British discipline and British intrepidity. He was astonished at the firmness with which his charges were received and repulsed by our troops: he spoke highly of our cavalry, and acknowledged that if the Earl of Uxbridge had not been wounded, he would have been the Earl's prisoner in two minutes; and he feels no hesitation in saying, that the Duke of Wellington was a better General than himself. I mention this circumstance, because in his voyage to Elba, when it was remarked that the Duke was the best General of the age, he answered, 'We have never yet met.' The Countesses Bertrand and Las Cases, and their husbands, are with him; the former is the daughter of the late Lord Dillon: she is an uncommonly fine and interesting woman."
"DARTMOUTH, JULY 26.- I was alongside His Majesty's ship Bellerophon last evening, and I saw Bonaparte very distinctly.
"Bonaparte walks the deck till six o'clock, at which time he retires to dine. He shows himself frequently to the spectators round the ship, and on retiring he pulls off his hat. He appears often looking at the people with his eye glass, and his picture which appeared in London about two months since, is an exact likeness of him. He wore a dark green coat, with red collar, buttoned close; cocked hat, two epaulets, light nankeen coloured breeches, and silk stockings the same colour. Every person present on the quarter-deck, both French and English, remain with their heads uncovered when he is on deck. The Bellerophon set sail for Plymouth by four o'clock this morning, and long ere this is there. He reads the English newspapers, but appears afterwards very serious, no doubt not liking their contents. He, I am told, dreads the idea of going to St. Helena, and is very much afraid of being sent to that island."
In the days of our Charles the First, the English Parliament, for a considerable time, fought the King in his own name. If the war should continue in the interior of France, it is probable that Davoust and his companions will clothe themselves with the same attribute.
A private letter from Mons, dated the 14th inst. contains the following particulars:- "It is only within these four days that the business of interring the bodies which strewed the field of battle of Mont St. Jean was finished. Several thousands of carriages had been put in requisition in the department of Jemappes for this operation. At the end of ten, twelve, and fifteen days, there were found among the dead a great number of wounded, who, from hunger or madness, had torn with their teeth the carcasses of men and horses. When I say from madness, I use that term because there were actually men wounded and dying, who when they were picked up cried, Vive l'Empereur! Long live the man who brought us hither to be slaughtered, who left behind him in his flight, without caring whether we were dead or dying! Long live the man without pity, without feeling, who left us to expire slowly on the field of battle, without recommending us to the attention or humanity of any one, while the wounded of the other armies were collected with such care and anxiety."
We extract the following from the (Bourbon) Journal de Paris: it will serve to shew the real state of affairs in France.- "I shall not speak of the public spirit of the capital. I should be ill prepared for the task, having ceased to make it my residence the day on which the tyrant entered it, being resolved never to appear in it again, so long as it should be under his power. I speak of the state of the public mind in those parts of the country which I have seen, in the provinces I have traversed, and I declare it with as much truth as regret, that never since the cruel epoch of 1793, did the provinces of France present a more revolutionary aspect: never did the multitude, the eternal sport of factions, the sanguinary instrument of all the chiefs of revolt and anarchy, display a more eager disposition to insurrection and violence. Never was the poison of calumny infused with greater care, or the fire of discord fed with more zeal and perseverance."
The system of making the people of France feel, by contributions and other military requisitions, something of the evils of war, appears highly grateful to the feelings of the Editors of our Treasury Newspapers. But we cannot imagine how they reconcile this approval to their ideas of justice. According to them, the people of France were to a man for King Louis- the military alone were against him. If, then, the latter alone were guilty, why must the former suffer, or be included in the common denomination of traitors to their Sovereign? If the people were innocent before the conquest of Paris (as surely they were said to be,) what action of theirs has since manifested their guilt? and if the military alone were criminal, why must the others be confounded in the punishment? If the nation favoured Bonaparte, the public in this country were deceived. If it did not favour him, why should it be punished?
As to the real state of affairs in France, we can only form crude and imperfect notions, from the scanty materials the Paris Journals afford us. They are, we can only perceive, commencing the same system of deception which proved so injurious to the Bourbon cause a few months ago, and therefore are very rarely to be believed. Indeed, when it is generally known, that to every newspaper in Paris is attached a censor, appointed by Government, we may readily appreciate the regard they pay to truth, when its publication militates against the interest of their patrons.
THE NEWS JULY 30
The Moniteur of the 21st inst. contains a long memorial presented to Congress by Sir Sidney Smith, on the subject of destroying the Barbary Piratical States. He offers to conduct an enterprise, by which he means to effect the end in view. The substance of his plan is, that the States who are most interested in putting down the pirates, should contribute their contingent to raise what the Admiral calls an amphibious force, by which is to be understood, one fit for naval or military service. With this he undertakes that commerce shall be secured, and the Africans civilized.
An English Chapel has, it is said, been opened in Paris, supported by voluntary contributions. Divine service is performed, and the rites of our Protestant Church are administered in it by two English Divines.
Orders were received at Portsmouth on Wednesday morning not to press any more seamen for his Majesty's navy, nor to enter any as volunteers for the same service.
Extract of a Letter from Genoa; dated July 5:- "A boat belonging to his Majesty's ship Pompee, which is cruising off Toulon, arrived here with dispatches on the 2d instant. She brought accounts that the two parties were fighting against each other throughout Provence, which was in a state of insurrection. We have since learnt by an express, that 6,000 troops sent from Toulon had entered Marseilles, and made great slaughter among the Royalists, sparing neither women or children, but the Bonapartists were defeated, and the place was quiet by the last accounts. Admiral Lord Exmouth sailed yesterday, with eight ships of war and fifteen transports, some of which took in here the 14th regiment, the Italian levy, and the Piedmontese troops, flying artillery, &c. &c.- This expedition is under the command of Major-General Lowe, and is said to be destined for Marseilles."A Mail from Flanders brought the following article. The Louvre, we trust, will be emptied of all the pictures and statues that have been plundered from other countries. There is a story told of Blucher.- It is, that he visits the Louvre with a catalogue in his hand, in which the galleries from whence the pictures are taken are stated.- "From the Dresden Gallery!" "O, yes- I recollect it- take it down!" and the veteran has the picture or pictures taken down at once.
The Forth, 40 guns, Captain Sir W. Bolton, sailed on Monday from Portsmouth for Dieppe, with her Royal Highness the Duchess of Angouleme on board.